Weights & Measures Tables
AVOIRDUPOIS OR COMMERCIAL WEIGHT
1 gross or long ton (l. tn.) = 2240 pounds
1 net or short ton (sh. tn.) = 2000 pounds
1 long hundred weight (l. cwt.) = 112 pounds
1 short hundred weight (sh. cwt.) = 100 pounds
1 pound (lb.) = 16 ounces (oz.) = 7000 grains (gr.)
1 ounce (oz.) = 16 drams (dr.) = 437.5 grains
APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT
1 pound (lb. ap.) = 12 ounces = 5760 grains
1 ounce (oz. ap.) = 8 drams = 480 grains
1 dram (dr. ap.) = 3 scruples = 60 grains
1 scruple (s. ap.) = 20 grains    
METRIC EQUIVALENTS AVOIRDUPOIS OR COMMERCIAL WEIGHT
1 long ton = 1.016 metric ton = 1016 kilograms
1 short tun = 0.9072 metric ton = 907.2 kilograms
1 pound av. = 0.4356 kilograms = 453.6 grams
1 ounce av. = 28.35 grams (g)    
1 grain (gr.) = 0.0648 gram (g)    
TROY WEIGHT
1 pound (lb. t.) = 12 ounces = 5760 grains
1 ounce (oz. t.) = 20 pennyweights = 480 grains
1 pennyweight (dwt.) = 24 grains    
METRIC WEIGHT
1 metric ton (t) = 1000 kilograms    
1 kilogram (or kilo) (kg) = 1000 grams = 10 hectograms
1 hectogram (hg) = 100 grams = 10 dekagrams
1 dekagram (dkg) = 10 grams    
1 gram (g) = 10 decigrams    
1 decigram (dg) = 10 centigrams    
1 centigram (cg) = 10 milligrams (mg)    
AVOIRDUPOIS EQUIVALENTS OF METRIC WEIGHT
1 ton (metric) = 0.9842 long ton = 2204.6 pounds av.
1 ton (metric) = 1.1023 short ton = 2204.6 pounds av.
1 kilogram = 2.2046 pounds av. = 35.274 ounces av.
1 gram = 0.03527 ounces av.    
1 gram = 15.432 grains    
TROY AND APOTHECARIES' WEIGHTS EQUIVALENTS IN AVOIRDUPOIS AND METRIC WEIGHT
1 pound Troy or apothecaries' = 0.82286 pounds avoirdupois = 373.2 grams
1 ounce Troy or apothecaries' = 1.09714 ounce avoirdupois = 31.103 grams
1 grain Troy or apothecaries' = 1 grain avoirdupois = 0.0648 gram
1 pound avoirsupois = 1.21528 pound Troy or apothecaries'    
1 kilogram (kg) = 0.911458 ounce Troy or apothecaries'    
1 gram (g) = 0.0322 ounce Troy or apothecaries'    
MEASURES OF LENGTH
1 mile (mi.) = 1760 yards = 5280 feet = 1.609 kilometers
1 yard (yd.) = 3 feet = 36 inches = 0.9144 meter
1 foot (ft.) = 12 inches = 304.8 millimeters    
1 inch (in.) = 25.4 millimeters        
1 kilometer (km) = 1000 meter        
1 meter (m) = 10 decimeter = 3.2808 feet = 39.37 inches
1 decimeter (dm) = 10 centimeter = 3.937 inches    
1 centimeter (cm) = 10 millimeter (mm) = 0.3937 inches    
FLUID POWER EQUIVALENTS / EXACT EQUIVALENTS
1 U.S. gallon = 231 cubic inches 
  = 4 quarts or 8 pints
  = 128 ounces (liquid) 
  = 133.37 ounces (weight) 
  8.3356 pounds 
  = 3.785 liters 
 1 imperial gallon 1.2 U.S. gallons 
 1 Liter 0.2642 U.S. gallons 
 1 cubic foot 7.48 gallons 
  = 1728 cubic inches 
  = 62.4 pounds (water) 
  = 760 mm Hg 
1 Cu. ft. water 62.4 pounds 
1 Bar at sea level = 14.504 PSI 
Approx. 1/2 PSI decrease each  1000 foot of elevation 
1 "Hg  0.490 PSI 
  = 1.131 ft. water 
 1 horsepower 33,000 ft. lbs. per minute 
  = 550 ft. lbs. per second 
  = 42.4 BTU per minute
  = 2545 BTU per hour
  = 746 watts or 0.746 kw
 1 PSI = 2.0416 "Hg
  = 27.72 " water
  27.71 bar 
 1 Atmosphere 1.013 bars 
  = 29.921 "Hg
  14.696 PSI 
  = 760 mm Hg 
 1 Foot water column 0.432 PSI 
1 Foot oil column  = 0.354 PSI
 1 Barrel oil = 42 gallons
 1 Micro-meter (micron) 0.000001 meter 
  0.001 centimeter 
  0.00004 inch 
25 Micro-meters = 0.001 inch
FLUID POWER EQUIVALENTS / APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENTS
1 Pint = 2 cups
2 cups = 32 tablespoons
32 tablespoons = 96 teaspoons
96 teaspoons = 16 fluid ounces
16 fluid ounces 1 lb.
 
1 Quart 4 cups
4 cups 2 pints
2 pints 32 fluid ounces
32 fluid ounces 2 pounds
 
1 Gallon 16 cups
16 cups 4 quarts
4 quarts 8 pints
8 pints 128 fluid ounces
128 fluid ounces 231 cubic inches
 
1 Cup 16 tablespoons
16 tablespoons 48 teaspoons
 
1 Tablespoon 3 tsp.
3 tsp. 1/2 fluid ounce
 
1 Fluid oz. (volume) 600 drops hydraulic oil
 
1 Cubic inch 330 drops (oil)
FLUID POWER ABBREVIATIONS
 abs absolute (as in psia) 
 A-C alternating current 
 Bhn Brinell hardness number 
 Btu British thermal unit 
 C degrees Centigrade (Celsius) 
 cc closed center 
 ccw counter clockwise 
 cfm cubic feet per minute 
 cfs cubic feet per second 
 cir cubic inches per revolution 
 cim cubic inches per minute 
 com common 
 cpm cycles per minute 
 cps cycles per second 
 cu.in/rev cubic inches per revolution 
 cw clockwise 
 cyl cylinder 
 dia diameter 
 ext external 
 F degrees Farenheit 
 fl fluid 
 fpm feet per minute 
 ft foot 
 ft-lb foot pound 
gal  gallon 
 gpm gallons per minute 
 Hg Mercury 
 HP horsepower 
 Hz Hertz 
 ID inside diameter 
 in inch 
 in-lb inch pound
 int internal 
 ipm inches per minute 
 ips inches per second 
 lb pound 
 max maximum 
 min minimum 
 mtd mounted 
 NC normally closed 
 NO normally open 
 NPT national pipe thread 
 NPTF dryseal pipe threads 
 oc open center 
 oz ounce 
 P.O. pilot operated 
 press pressure 
 psi pounds per square inch 
 psia psi absolute 
 psig psi gauge 
 pt pint 
 qt quart 
 r radius 
 rms root mean square 
 rpm revolutions per minute 
 rps revolutions per second 
 scfm standard cu. ft. per minute 
 Smls seamless 
 sol solenoid 
 SSU Saybolt seconds universal 
 SUS Saybolt universal seconds 
 u micro-meters or microns 
 T torque 
 vac vacuum 
 VI viscosity index 
 visc viscosity 

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